As used in the rules and regulations adopted by the Commission under the Code, unless the context otherwise requires: All securities of the same class beneficially owned by a person, regardless of the form such beneficial ownership takes, shall be aggregated in calculating the number of shares beneficially owned by such person. Bill of Exchange is an unconditional order in writing addressed by one person to another, signed by the person giving it, requiring the person to whom it is addressed to pay on demand or at a fixed or determinable future time a sum certain in money to order or to bearer.
Securities and Exchange Commission is to protect investors, maintain fair, orderly, and efficient markets, and facilitate capital formation.
As more and more first-time investors turn to the markets to help secure their futures, pay for homes, and send children to college, our investor protection mission is more compelling than ever. The world of investing is fascinating and complex, and it can be very fruitful. But unlike the banking world, where deposits are guaranteed by the federal government, stocks, bonds and other securities can lose value.
There are no guarantees. By far the best way for investors to protect the money they put into the securities markets is to do research and ask questions. The laws and rules that govern the securities industry in the United States derive from a simple and straightforward concept: To achieve this, the SEC requires public companies to disclose meaningful financial and other information to the public.
This provides a common pool of knowledge for all investors to use to judge for themselves whether to buy, sell, or hold a particular security.
Only through the steady flow of timely, comprehensive, and accurate information can people make sound investment decisions. To insure that this objective is always being met, the SEC continually works with all major market participants, including especially the investors in our securities markets, to listen to their concerns and to learn from their experience.
The SEC oversees the key participants in the securities world, including securities exchanges, securities brokers and dealers, investment advisors, and mutual funds. Here the SEC is concerned primarily with promoting the disclosure of important market-related information, maintaining fair dealing, and protecting against fraud.
Each year the SEC brings hundreds of civil enforcement actions against individuals and companies for violation of the securities laws.
Typical infractions include insider trading, accounting fraud, and providing false or misleading information about securities and the companies that issue them. One of the major sources of information on which the SEC relies to bring enforcement action is investors themselves — another reason that educated and careful investors are so critical to the functioning of efficient markets.
To help support investor education, the SEC offers the public a wealth of educational information on this Internet websitewhich also includes the EDGAR database of disclosure documents that public companies are required to file with the Commission.
Though it is the primary overseer and regulator of the U. More detailed information about many of these topics is available throughout this website. Before the Great Crash ofthere was little support for federal regulation of the securities markets.
This was particularly true during the post-World War I surge of securities activity. Proposals that the federal government require financial disclosure and prevent the fraudulent sale of stock were never seriously pursued.
Tempted by promises of "rags to riches" transformations and easy credit, most investors gave little thought to the systemic risk that arose from widespread abuse of margin financing and unreliable information about the securities in which they were investing.
During the s, approximately 20 million large and small shareholders took advantage of post-war prosperity and set out to make their fortunes in the stock market.
Roosevelt Joseph Kennedy When the stock market crashed in Octoberpublic confidence in the markets plummeted. Investors large and small, as well as the banks who had loaned to them, lost great sums of money in the ensuing Great Depression.
Congress held hearings to identify the problems and search for solutions.The term “major source” means any stationary source or group of stationary sources located within a contiguous area and under common control that emits or has the potential to emit considering controls, in the aggregate, 10 tons per year or more of any hazardous air pollutant or 25 tons per year or more of any combination of hazardous air pollutants.
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP or US GAAP) is the accounting standard adopted by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). While the SEC previously stated that it intends to move from US GAAP to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), the latter differ considerably from GAAP and progress .
Summary Subprime mortgage bubble. The precipitating factor for the Financial Crisis of – was a high default rate in the United States subprime home mortgage sector – the bursting of the "subprime bubble". While the causes of the bubble are disputed, some or . Congress established the Securities and Exchange Commission in to enforce the newly-passed securities laws, to promote stability in the markets and, most importantly, to protect investors.
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt appointed Joseph P.
Kennedy, President John F. Kennedy's father, to serve as the first Chairman of the SEC. Inspections. Inspections assess registered firm compliance with applicable laws, rules and professional standards in the firms' systems of quality control and in the portions of audits selected for inspection. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is a federal agency which holds primary responsibility for enforcing the federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry, the nation's stock and options exchanges, and other electronic securities markets in the US.
SEC in Focus Proposed rules EY comment letters Selected SEC staff speeches.