Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. The Spanish period Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial.
Beginning in the early 20th century, scholars from the United States in various disciplines began writing their own interpretations of the colonial period that preceded the half-century of American occupation.
Filipino social scientists have entered the fray since the s, but exponentially more so following independence incontributing an important indigenous perspective that had been absent from previous erudition.
Despite this centuries-old body of literature, the era of Spanish colonialism is, relatively speaking, an understudied field of academic inquiry. General Overviews Since the islands of the archipelago were never unified before the Spanish arrived, and even after three centuries many of them still displayed autonomous tendencies especially the Muslim islands of Mindanao and the Sulusthe geographical scope of broad surveys on this era is essentially limited to the island of Luzon and the Visayas.
Centered on Manila, Castilian power in the Philippines can be explained as a series of concentric circles of weakening influence. A common thread running through the books in this section are gratuitous examinations of the initial conquest, various civil and religious administrative practices, the process of Hispanization, indigenous reactions against exploitative policies, the co-optation of local elites into the power structure, financial and economic matters, security concerns both foreign and domesticand Chinese immigration and trade.
The second phase of general histories is more analytical benefiting from ethnographic and anthropological approachesand the overviews are penned by American-educated Filipino intelligentsia.
Benitez and Zaide exemplify the attempt to add pre-Hispanic indigenous and Asian influences to the discussion, coinciding with a more objectively critical evaluation of Castilian colonialism.
The third and present phase builds upon this foundation and re-centers the focus on Filipino experiences and cultural practices that either resisted or blended with Hispanic, Chinese, and American cultural assimilation strategies.
Cushnerwith its synoptic style, reveals an empathetic understanding of Philippine culture and its history. The multivolume works in Roces and Punongboyan, et al. State and Society in the Philippines. Written for both students and scholars, the book blends textbook facts with sophisticated analysis.
Although most of the book is dedicated to examining the legacy of US colonial and post-colonial relations on Philippine politics, economics, and society, it provides adequate coverage on a wide range of topics.
History of the Philippines: The book contains an enormous amount of information from prehistory, through the Spanish colonial era the bulk of its contents to the early period of US occupation.
Spain in the Philippines: From Conquest to Revolution. Ateneo de Manila University, Especially enlightening are the chapters that discuss the exploitative practices of forced tributes and labor, and colonial trade and finance.
Punongboyan, Raymundo, and Prescillano Zamora, et al. The Story of the Philippine People. The Making of a Nation.
The strengths of this encyclopedic approach are the numerous articles written by renowned scholars and an amazing variety of illustrations that include rare documents, paintings, drawings, and maps.
The Philippines since Pre-Spanish Times. The remainder of the book evaluates a panorama of Spanish colonial policies, international and regional conflicts, the Galleon trade, and wars with Muslim sultanates in Mindanao and the Sulu Islands.
An Historical Overview of the Philippine Islands. Filipiniana Book Guild, The first few chapters 1—6 describe the conquest of the islands, while the next thirty evaluate in chronological order the major achievements and noteworthy events during the administrations of each governor-general.
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Spain reigned over the Philippines for years, from to since Spain was far from the country, the Spanish king ruled the Islands through the viceroy of Mexico, which was then another Spanish colony.
When Mexico regained its freedom in , the Spanish king ruled the Philippines through a governor general. The Philippines under Spanish Colonial Regime (Part II) The Encomiendas Right given by the king of Spain to a Spaniard who had helped to facilitate the settlement of a territory.
By implication, it was a public office and the person became known as a n encomiendero who: 1. The Spanish period Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial. The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago.
Philippine Literature in the Spanish Colonial Period. The Spanish colonial strategy was to undermine the native oral tradition by substituting for it the story of the Passion of Christ (Lumbera, p. 14). (), the first book to be printed in the Philippines, was a prayerbook written in Spanish with an accompanying Tagalog translation.
The Battle of Manila Bay took place on 1 May , during the end of Spanish-American War. After years of Spanish rule, the U.S.
Navy defeated the Spanish Pacific fleet, and the Spaniards surrendered control over the Philippines upon on agreeing to sign the Treaty of Paris on December 10, An even more pronounced rivalry involved the insulares (full-blooded Spanish born in the Philippines) and the peninsulares (full-blooded Spanish born in Spain).
Tensions between the two classes ran high especially with the influx of the latter into the archipelago during the late s.