Nelson Mandela Essay Nelson Mandela: A Long Walk to Immortality The most respected world leader in the late 20th century, Nelson Mandela is being remembered for his life-long battle against injustice and apartheid in Africa. Mandela lived in the era of racial discrimination and fought to implement the democratic and equal relations in his country.
Birth[ edit ] Morarji Desai was of Gujarati origin. His father was a school teacher. After graduating from Wilson College, Mumbaihe joined the civil service in Gujarat. Desai resigned as deputy collector of Godhra in May after being found guilty of going soft on Hindus during the riots of there.
He spent many years in jail during the freedom struggle and owing to his sharp leadership skills and tough spirit, he became a favourite amongst freedom-fighters and an important leader of the Indian National Congress in the Gujarat region. When provincial elections were held in andDesai was elected and served as the Revenue Minister and Home Minister of the Bombay Presidency.
The state was a bi-lingual state, home to Gujarati-speaking and Marathi-speaking people. Sinceactivist organization Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti led a movement for a Marathi-only speaking state of Maharashtra. A staunch nationalist himself, Morarji Desai was opposed to such movements, including the Mahagujarat Movement led by Indulal Yagnik demanding a new state of Gujarat.
Desai proposed that the metropolitan Mumbai as coined by earlier Koli inhabitantsbe made into a union territory or a separate development region to suit its cosmopolitan nature, due to its long-settled citizens from diverse settings across various linguistic, cultural, and religious backgrounds spanning several generations.
In opposition to his alleged Gandhian thoughts, Desai ordered police to fire on demonstrators of the Mumbai-unit of Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti at Flora Fountain who had gathered there to demonstrate against government. The protesters were led by Senapati Bapat.
Desai ordered firing which killed protesters including an eleven-year-old girl during the incident. This escalated the issue and is believed to have forced the Federal Government to agree to two separate states based on language. After the formation of the present State of Maharashtra, Bombay, now Mumbai became its state capital.
Flora Fountain was renamed "Hutatma Chowk" "Martyrs' Square" in Marathi to honour the people killed in the firing. Home Minister[ edit ] As Home Minister, Desai outlawed any portrayals of indecency which included "kissing" scenes in films and theatrical productions.
Being a staunch GandhianDesai was socially conservative, pro-business, and in favour of free enterprise reforms, as opposed to Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru 's socialistic policies.
Rising in Congress leadership, as a fierce nationalist with anti-corruption leanings, Desai was at odds with Prime Minister Nehru and his allies, and with Nehru's age and health failing, he was considered as a possible contender for the position of Prime Minister.
Outflanked in the leadership contest after Nehru's death in by the Nehruvian Lal Bahadur ShastriDesai remained content to build support within the ranks. In earlythe unexpected passing away of Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri after only 18 months in power made Morarji Desai once again a contender for the top position.
However, he was defeated by Nehru's daughter, Indira Gandhiin the Congress party leadership election by a big margin.
At the same time, she also nationalized the fourteen largest banks in India. These acts compelled Morarji Desai to resign from the Gandhi cabinet.
In the subsequent split of the Congress party, Morarji joined the Indian National Congress Organisation faction of the party, whereas Gandhi formed a new faction called Indian National Congress Ruling.
Alternatively, the two factions of Desai and Indira were called Syndicate and Indicate respectively. The general elections to the Indian parliament were won by Indira Gandhi's faction in a landslide. Morarji Desai, however, was elected as a member of the Lok Sabha or lower house of Parliament.
Morarji Desai went on indefinite hunger strike on 12 March to support Nav Nirman movement of Gujarat. Emergency Wave[ edit ] The popular anti-corruption movement led by Jayaprakash Narayan and the anti-Emergency wave in led to the complete routing of the Congress party in Northern India, and a landslide victory for the opposition Janata alliance in the National elections held in March Morarji Desai was selected by the Janata alliance, later Janata Party as their parliamentary leader, and thus became the first non-Congress Prime Minister of India.
Desai and Carter in the Oval Office in June Janata Party registered a landslide victory in the election and Morarji Desai became the Prime Minister.
Most of the people were opposed to the forced sterilization and felt unheard due to which even during the Emergency, the biggest democracy in the world was able to come together to try and put an end to such oppression against the people by the Central Government. Indira Gandhi as well as the Congress party in particular, as felt by the majority population in rural and inner cities where the forced sterilizations were taking place en masse.
Hence Indira Gandhi lost. Desai worked to improve relations with neighbor Pakistan and restored normal relations with China, for the first time since the war. He communicated with Zia-ul-Haq and established friendly relations. Diplomatic relations were also re-established with China.
His government undid many amendments made to the constitution during emergency and made it difficult for any future government to impose a national emergency. However, the Janata Party coalition, was full of personal and policy friction and thus failed to achieve much owing to continuous in-wrangling and much controversy.
With no party in leadership of the coalition, rival groups vied to unseat Desai. Controversial trials of prominent Congress leaders, including Indira Gandhi over Emergency-era abuses worsened the fortunes of his administration. First Nuclear Test[ edit ] Since India's first nuclear test inDesai kept India's nuclear reactors stating "they will never be used for atomic bombs, and I will see to it if I can help it".
Desai declined, seeing the American stance as contradictory, in light of its own nuclear arsenal.We are not an institution so please contact the relevant institution directly for course information. Nelson Mandela A Great Leader History Essay.
Print Reference this. Disclaimer: Nelson Mandela formed a group with other members of the ANC under the leadership of a colleague, Anton Lembede. The main focus of the group was to change the African National Congress into a mass movement.
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The movie has an important place in American history—and the history of LIF. Dec 05, · Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African lawyer, politician, freedom fighter, president and peace ambassador. He was born on July 18, in Transkei, South Africa.
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