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This article explains the current indications for liver transplantation, types of donor livers, the operation itself, and the immunosuppression that is required after transplantation.
A liver transplant is an operation that replaces a patient's diseased liver with a whole or partial Liver essay liver from another person. Liver Anatomy and Function The liver is a vital organ, meaning that one cannot live without it.
The liver serves many critical functions including metabolism of drugs and toxins, removing degradation products of normal body metabolism for example clearance of ammonia and bilirubin from the bloodand synthesis of many important proteins and enzymes such as factors necessary for blood to clot.
Blood enters the liver from two channels, the hepatic artery and the portal vein, bringing nutrients and oxygen to liver cells, also known as hepatocytes, and bile ducts.
Blood leaves the liver via the hepatic veins which drain into the inferior vena cava which immediately enters the heart. The liver makes bile, a liquid that Liver essay dissolve fat and eliminate metabolic waste and toxins via the intestine. Each hepatocyte creates bile and excretes it into microscopic channels that join to form bile ducts.
Like tributaries joining to form a river, the bile ducts join to form a single "hepatic duct" that brings bile into the intestine.
The bile ducts join to form a single "hepatic duct" that brings bile into the intestine. Liver transplantation surgically replaces a failing or diseased liver with one that is normal and healthy. At this time, transplantation is the only cure for liver insufficiency or liver failure because no device or machine reliably performs all of the functions of the liver.
People who require liver transplants typically have one of the following conditions.
Acute Liver Failure Acute liver failure, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, occurs when a previously healthy liver suffers massive injury resulting in clinical signs and symptoms of liver insufficiency. The hallmark of this condition is the development of confusion encephalopathy within eight weeks after the onset of yellowing of the skin jaundice.
Confusion occurs because toxins typically metabolized by the liver accumulate. Unlike patients with chronic liver disease, who can survive weeks to months to years while awaiting liver transplantation, patients with acute liver failure may die within days if not transplanted.
These patients are listed at highest priority Status Iplacing them at the top of local, regional and national waiting lists for a donor liver.
Chronic liver failure The liver has a remarkable ability to repair itself in response to injury. Nevertheless, repeated injury and repair, typically over many years and even decades, scars the liver permanently. The end stage of scarring is termed cirrhosis and corresponds to the point where the liver can no longer repair itself.
Once a person has cirrhosis, he or she may begin to show signs of inadequate liver function. This is termed "decompensated liver disease. As the liver becomes increasingly scarred, the resistance to portal blood flow increases leading to increased pressure in the portal venous system.
This portal hypertension necessitates alternative routes for blood to return to the heart. Small veins throughout the abdomen, but outside of the liver, then become enlarged and thin-walled due to the abnormally high amount of blood flowing through them under increased pressure.
These fragile veins, called varices, often line portions of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the esophagus and the stomach, and are prone to rupture and bleeding. When bleeding occurs into the intestinal tract, it can be life-threatening.
One function of the liver is to synthesize many of the proteins circulating in the bloodstream, including albumin. Albumin and other proteins in the blood stream retain fluid in the vascular space by exerting what is known as an oncotic or osmotic pressure.The free Biology research paper (The Liver essay) presented on this page should not be viewed as a sample of our on-line writing service.
If you need fresh and competent research / writing on Biology, use the professional writing service offered by our company. View / hide essay. The liver is the workhorse of the human body, fulfilling such a wide range of roles that our overall health is in large part a reflection of the liver’s health.
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