This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background There is an apparent disjuncture between the requirements of the medical spiral curriculum and the practice of replacing previous online material in undergraduate courses.
Marylhurst University's closure resulted from: Implications of online learning, an independent institution near Portland, Ore.
The Board of Trustees plans to return the campus to the religious order that founded the college. As is common when colleges close, faculty membersstudents and some alumni have objected to the decision and are urging the university's leaders to reconsider.
They have questioned, among other things, how a university that was ahead of its time in its focus on adult students and its embrace of innovative approaches to learning lost its way.
The answer, unsurprisingly, is complex and almost certainly "all of the above". One fact is simple: But why has as much to do with external forces -- an economic recovery and intensified competition from bigger-name players in the online and adult-learning spaces -- as with faculty concerns that administrators weren't transparent and creative enough in exploring possible solutions to Marylhurst's problems.
The university in these ways has much in common with another struggling pioneer in online education, Excelsior College, which "Inside Digital Learning" profiled this month.
Exploring All Options The announcement of Marylhurst's closure brought an outpouring of dismay from current and former students and employees, who described an institution that catered to working adults and others for whom a traditional college education would not work.
The university also was a pioneer in using prior learning assessment to help students with some college-level education finish their degrees, long before competency-based education became a buzzword.
A group of faculty members -- anonymously, they said, because of feared retaliation from Marylhurst's leaders -- issued a statement disputing university leaders' assertions that they had "considered all options" for sustaining the institution, noting that the board had dismissed a request from professors for a two-week delay to allow them to craft an alternative plan.
Professors said they needed more time because campus leaders had failed to involve them sufficiently in discussions about the financial situation, declining to share a full budget plan and being less than fully transparent about how vulnerable Marylhurst was.
Marylhurst's enrollment has been in decline since early this decade, when the boom that many colleges especially those that educate large numbers of working adults experienced during the joblessness of the Great Recession began to ebb. Rose said she held quarterly open meetings since becoming president in at which she and her cabinet members shared budget and enrollment numbers.
Last fall, as concerns intensified, she said the university added managers' meetings that included academic department chairs and developed an "extremely inclusive budgeting process" to which faculty and staff members were encouraged to share their ideas for balancing the budget.
Asked if she had warned employees that a closure was possible during any of those meetings, Rose said, "This institution has been in decline for almost eight years, and these conversations about our future and our ability to find viability and sustainability have been ongoing throughout that entire time.
I do think the word 'closure' is jarring, particularly for a community that has seen decline for so long. There can be a surreal sense to it. Searching for Explanations At the core, many faculty and staff members and students doubt university leaders' explanations for why things went south for Marylhurst.
As Rose and the chair of Marylhurst's Board of Trustees, Chip Terhune, tell it, a host of national and local factors contributed to the university's decline. Like many institutions that serve large numbers of adults -- see the enrollment patterns for community colleges and for-profit institutions this decade -- Marylhurst's enrollment boomed during the recession as jobs disappeared and fell as it ended.
Not only did some students unenroll or choose not to enroll at allRose said, but others who stayed traded credit hours for work hours as Portland's economy improved. University officials were unable to calculate the revenue hit by publication time for this article, but it has to have been steep, given that M.
The university was an early mover into online education, building its enrollments at a time when far fewer colleges operated in the space. Like many of those early adopters -- particularly smaller regional ones -- Marylhurst has struggled to keep pace as bigger, better-known and deeper-pocketed players entered the market.
Some of them are local, like Oregon State University, but Marylhurst also has found its lunch increasingly eaten by national players.
Inthe latest year for which data are available, an enrollment database kept by the National Council for State Authorization Reciprocity Agreements shows that 11, students from Oregon enrolled online in programs located in other states.
While the data do not show exactly how many of those students might previously have been Marylhurst students, they do show who is gaining ground in Oregon. Arizona State University enrolling students inup from in and in ; Grand Canyon University enrolling students inup from in and in ; Southern New Hampshire University enrolling students inup from in and in ; and Brigham Young University-Idaho enrolling students inup from in The database contains only one year's worth of data for Western Governors University, but it shows the competency-based institution for adults -- clearly a direct competitor with Marylhurst -- enrolling 1, Oregonians in Marylhurst's early advantage in having a vibrant online program eroded.
The story of Marylhurst was a small one, and I wish more institutions were thinking about how to get online education to work at that scale. The university's problem was exacerbated, Rose said, by the fact that "millennials are not as keen to get M. Included among them was a bet Marylhurst placed to try to reinforce its reputation as an ahead-of-the-curve innovator -- participation in the federal program known as Educational Quality through Innovative Partnerships EQUIPwhich the Obama administration designed to try to experiment with the use of federal student aid for boot camps and other providers of nondegree credentials.
Marylhurst planned a partnership with a local coding academy known as Epicodus, in which they would jointly offer a week certificate program in web and mobile development that would qualify as college credit.
The arrangement was one of eight programs selected for a pilot.
But after getting what Rose called "preliminary" approval from the Education Department in springfinal approval never came the program has stumbled out of the gate generally, as Inside Higher Ed reported last month.
Michael Kaiser-Nyman, president and founder of Epicodus, said he was "surprised" to learn from the Willamette Week report that Marylhurst had budgeted so much from the program. In the end, they say, they looked at three possible scenarios for remaining open alongside one that involved a teach-out and closure.
One involved becoming a graduate-only institution, closing all undergraduate programs an option chosen last year by Marygrove University in Michigan ; going graduate only except for the undergraduate business major, which has healthy enrollments; or keeping the university's current academic portfolio but further retrenching administratively to try to balance the budget.
Terhune said the university did not have enough cash to finance a teach-out of the undergraduate programs and investments in new graduate faculty to pivot to a graduate-only institution. Rose said the last scenario came closest, but that even it left a "multimillion-dollar deficit" forand that the university's multiyear financial forecasts showed structural deficits extending into the years ahead.Online learning, also known as distance learning or e-learning, is an educational option for students who wish to take a course or even earn a degree without attending on-campus classes.
56 Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE April Volume: 14 ISSN Number: 2 Article 2 E-LEARNING IMPLICATIONS FOR ADULT LEARNING Assist. Prof. Implications of Online Learning for the Conceptual Development and Practice of Distance Education Randy Garrison Abstract The purpose of this article is to examine the foundational principles and practices of distance education in the context of recent developments in the areas of online learning.
56 Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE April Volume: 14 ISSN Number: 2 Article 2 E-LEARNING IMPLICATIONS FOR ADULT LEARNING Assist. Prof. Social Implications of Online Learning Although online learners usually study from their home computers, they frequently interact with their classmates and instructors using both real-time technology and ongoing e-mail or forum discussions.
There is an apparent disjuncture between the requirements of the medical spiral curriculum and the practice of replacing previous online material in undergraduate courses. This paper investigates the extent to which students revisit previous online material for the purposes of building the.