It tries to discover the nature of truth and knowledge and to find what is of basic value and importance in life. It also examines the relationships between humanity and nature and between the individual and society.
Archelogia philosophica nova; or, New principles of Philosophy. The word was first used in its Latin form by philosophers based on the Latin roots, which themselves are based on the Greek. Origins Parmenides and monism Parmenides was among the first in the Greek tradition to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of existence.
In his prologue or proem he describes two views of existence ; initially that nothing comes from nothing, and therefore existence is eternal. Consequently, our opinions about truth must often be false and deceitful. Most of western philosophy — including the fundamental concepts of falsifiability — have emerged from this view.
This posits that existence is what can be conceived of by thought, created, or possessed. Hence, there can be neither void nor vacuum; and true reality can neither come into being nor vanish from existence.
Rather, the entirety of creation is eternal, uniform, and immutable, though not infinite he characterized its shape as that of a perfect sphere. Parmenides thus posits that change, as perceived in everyday experience, is illusory. Everything that can be apprehended is but one part of a single entity.
This idea somewhat anticipates the modern concept of an ultimate grand unification theory that finally describes all of existence in terms of one inter-related sub-atomic reality which applies to everything.
Ontological pluralism The opposite of eleatic monism is the pluralistic conception of Being. In the 5th century BC, Anaxagoras and Leucippus replaced  the reality of Being unique and unchanging with that of Becoming and therefore by a more fundamental and elementary ontic plurality. This thesis originated in the Hellenic world, stated in two different ways by Anaxagoras and by Leucippus.
The first theory dealt with "seeds" which Aristotle referred to as "homeomeries" of the various substances. The second was the atomistic theory, which dealt with reality as based on the vacuumthe atoms and their intrinsic movement in it.
The materialist Atomism proposed by Leucippus was indeterministbut then developed by Democritus in a deterministic way. It was later 4th century BC that the original atomism was taken again as indeterministic by Epicurus.
He confirmed the reality as composed of an infinity of indivisible, unchangeable corpuscles or atoms atomon, lit. Their movement is influenced by the parenklisis Lucretius names it clinamen and that is determined by the chance.
These ideas foreshadowed our understanding of traditional physics until the nature of atoms was discovered in the 20th century. Plato Plato developed this distinction between true reality and illusion, in arguing that what is real are eternal and unchanging Forms or Ideas a precursor to universalsof which things experienced in sensation are at best merely copies, and real only in so far as they copy 'partake of' such Forms.
In general, Plato presumes that all nouns e. Hence, in The Sophist Plato argues that Being is a Form in which all existent things participate and which they have in common though it is unclear whether 'Being' is intended in the sense of existencecopulaor identity ; and argues, against Parmenides, that Forms must exist not only of Being, but also of Negation and of non-Being or Difference.
In his CategoriesAristotle identifies ten possible kinds of things that can be the subject or the predicate of a proposition. For Aristotle there are four different ontological dimensions: According to Avicennaand in an interpretation of Greek Aristotelian and Platonist ontological doctrines in medieval metaphysicsbeing is either necessary, contingent qua possible, or impossible.
Necessary being is that which cannot but be, since its non-being entails a contradiction. Contingent qua possible being is neither necessary nor impossible for it to be or not to be.
It is ontologically neutral, and is brought from potential existing into actual existence by way of a cause that is external to its essence. Its being is borrowed unlike the necessary existent, which is self-subsisting and is impossible for it not to be.
As for the impossible, it necessarily does not exist, and the affirmation of its being is a contradiction. Temporal, spatial, corporeal, epistemological and performative relations are taken to be central to understanding a dominant formation.
That is, a particular ontological formation is based on how ontological categories of time, space, embodiment, knowing and performing are lived—objectively and subjectively.
Different ontological formations include the customary including the tribalthe traditional, the modern and the postmodern. In the engaged theory approach, ontological formations are seen as layered and intersecting rather than singular formations. They are 'formations of being'.
This approach avoids the usual problems of a Great Divide being posited between the modern and the pre-modern. Descartes argued further that this knowledge could lead to a proof of the certainty of the existence of Godusing the ontological argument that had been formulated first by Anselm of Canterbury.
Certainty about the existence of "the self" and "the other", however, came under increasing criticism in the 20th century. Sociological theorists, most notably Erving Goffman, saw the Cartesian Other as a "Generalized Other", the imaginary audience that individuals use when thinking about the self.
According to Mead, "we do not assume there is a self to begin with.Process and Reality is a book by Alfred North Whitehead, in which Whitehead propounds a philosophy of organism, also called process philosophy. The book, published in , is a revision of the Gifford Lectures he gave in – Philosophy is the systematic study of the foundations of human knowledge with an emphasis on the conditions of its validity and finding answers to ultimate questions.
While every other science aims at investigating a specific area of knowledge, such as physics or psychology, philosophy has been defined as “thinking about thinking.”At the same time, as expressed by its Greek etymology. Cosmology, Ontology, and Human Efficacy.
Essays in Chinese Thought. by SMITH, RICHARD AND D.W.Y. KWOK Condition: See description. Process philosophy is based on the conviction that the central task of philosophy is to construct a cosmology in which all intuitions well-grounded in human experience can be reconciled.
Whereas cosmologies were traditionally based on religious, ethical and aesthetic as well as scientific experiences, cosmology in the modern period has.
A human being is made up of only non-human elements – the air, the water, the forest, the river, the mountains, and the animals. The Diamond Sutra is the most ancient text .
Title: Cosmology, Ontology, And Human Efficacy: Essays In Chinese Thought attheheels.com Author: attheheels.com Created Date: 1/2/ PM.